Publication — IRIC
RNA helicase DDX3X modulates herpes simplex virus 1 nuclear egress.
DDX3X is a mammalian RNA helicase that regulates RNA metabolism, cancers, innate immunity and several RNA viruses. We discovered that herpes simplex virus 1, a nuclear DNA replicating virus, redirects DDX3X to the nuclear envelope where it surprisingly modulates the exit of newly assembled viral particles. DDX3X depletion also leads to an accumulation of virions in intranuclear herniations. Mechanistically, we show that DDX3X physically and functionally interacts with the virally encoded nuclear egress complex at the inner nuclear membrane. DDX3X also binds to and stimulates the incorporation in mature particles of pUs3, a herpes kinase that promotes viral nuclear release across the outer nuclear membrane. Overall, the data highlights two unexpected roles for an RNA helicase during the passage of herpes simplex viral particles through the nuclear envelope. This reveals a highly complex interaction between DDX3X and viruses and provides new opportunities to target viral propagation.