Publication — IRIC
Graphene field-effect transistors as bioanalytical sensors: design, operation and performance.
Graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) are emerging as bioanalytical sensors, in which their responsive electrical conductance is used to perform quantitative analyses of biologically-relevant molecules such as DNA, proteins, ions and small molecules. This review provides a detailed evaluation of reported approaches in the design, operation and performance assessment of GFET biosensors. We first dissect key design elements of these devices, along with most common approaches for their fabrication. We compare possible modes of operation of GFETs as sensors, including transfer curves, output curves and time series as well as their integration in real-time or a posteriori protocols. Finally, we review performance metrics reported for the detection and quantification of bioanalytes, and discuss limitations and best practices to optimize the use of GFETs as bioanalytical sensors.