Publication — IRIC
Molecular Mechanisms of Desensitization Underlying the Differential Effects of Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 Agonists on Cardiac Structure-Function Post Myocardial Infarction.
Formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) plays an integral role in the transition of macrophages from a pro-inflammatory program to one that is pro-resolving. FPR2-mediated stimulation of resolution post myocardial infarction has demonstrated efficacy in rodent models and is hypothesized to reduce progression into heart failure. FPR2 agonists that promote long-lasting receptor internalization can lead to persistent desensitization and diminished therapeutic benefits. In vitro signaling profiles and propensities for receptor desensitization of two clinically studied FPR2 agonists, namely, BMS-986235 and ACT-389949, were evaluated. In contrast to BMS-986235, pre-stimulation with ACT-389949 led to a decrease in its potency to inhibit cAMP production. Moreover, ACT-389949 displayed greater efficacy for β-arrestin recruitment, while efficacy of Gi activation was similar for both agonists. Following agonist-promoted FPR2 internalization, effective recycling to the plasma membrane was observed only with BMS-986235. Use of G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) knock-out cells revealed a differential impact of GRK2 versus GRK5/6 on β-arrestin recruitment and Gi activation promoted by the two FPR2 agonists. In vivo, decreases of granulocytes in circulation were greatly diminished in mice treated with ACT-389949 but not for BMS-986235. With short-term dosing, both compounds induced a pro-resolution polarization state in cardiac monocyte/macrophages post myocardial infarction. By contrast, with long-term dosing, only BMS-986235 preserved the infarct wall thickness and increased left ventricular ejection fraction in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Altogether, the study shows that differences in the desensitization profiles induced by ACT-389949 and BMS-986235 at the molecular level may explain their distinct inflammatory/pro-resolving activities in vivo.