Publication — IRIC
A primary role for kinin B1 receptor in inflammation, organ damage, and lethal thrombosis in a rat model of septic shock in diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus and septic shock increase the incidence of mortality by thrombosis. Although kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is involved in both pathologies, its role in platelet function and thrombosis remains unknown. This study investigates the expression, the inflammatory, and pro-thrombotic effects of B1R in a model of septic shock in diabetic rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were made diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg, i.p.). Four days later, control and STZ-diabetic rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (2 mg/kg, i.p.) or the vehicle. B1R antagonist (SSR240612, 10 mg/kg by gavage) was given either acutely (12 and 24 h prior to endpoint analysis) or daily for up to 7 days. Moreover, a 7-day treatment was given either with cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor (niflumic acid, 5 mg/kg, i.p.), non-selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor (indomethacin, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (L-NAME, 50 mg/kg by gavage), iNOS inhibitor (1400W, 5 mg/kg, i.p.), or heparin (100 IU/kg, s.c.). The following endpoints were measured: edema and vascular permeability (Evans blue dye), B1R expression (qRT-PCR, western blot, flow cytometry), aggregation in platelet-rich plasma (optical aggregometry), and organ damage (histology). Rats treated with STZ, LPS, and STZ plus LPS showed significant increases in edema and vascular permeability (heart, kidney, lung, and liver) and increased expression of B1R in heart and kidney (mRNA) and platelets (protein). Lethal septic shock induced by LPS was enhanced in STZ-diabetic rats and was associated with lung and kidney damage, including platelet micro-aggregate formation. SSR240612 prevented all these abnormalities as well as STZ-induced hyperglycemia and LPS-induced hyperthermia. Similarly to SSR240612, blockade of iNOS and COX-2 improved survival. Data provide the first evidence that kinin B1R plays a primary role in lethal thrombosis in a rat model of septic shock in diabetes. Pharmacological rescue was made possible with B1R antagonism or by inhibition of iNOS and COX-2, which may act as downstream mechanisms.