Publication — IRIC
Defining bone fide effectors of RAS GTPases.
RAS GTPases play essential roles in normal development and are direct drivers of human cancers. Three decades of study have failed to wholly characterize pathways stimulated by activated RAS, driven by engagement with ‘effector’ proteins that have RAS binding domains (RBDs). Bone fide effectors must bind directly to RAS GTPases in a nucleotide-dependent manner, and this interaction must impart a clear change in effector activity. Despite this, for most proteins currently deemed effectors there is little mechanistic understanding of how binding to the GTPase alters protein function. There has also been limited effort to comprehensively resolve the specificity of effector binding to the full array of RAS superfamily GTPase proteins. This review will summarize what is known about RAS-driven activation for an array of potential effector proteins, focusing on structural and mechanistic effects and highlighting how little is still known regarding this key paradigm of cellular signal transduction.