Publication — IRIC
Regulation of protein kinase Cδ Nuclear Import and Apoptosis by Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex-1.
Inactivation of the protein complex ‘mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1’ (mTORC1) can increase the nuclear content of transcriptional regulators of metabolism and apoptosis. Previous studies established that nuclear import of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) requires the mTORC1-associated adaptor karyopherin-α1 (KPNA1) when mTORC1 activity is reduced. However, the role of other mTORC1-interacting proteins in the complex, including ‘protein kinase C delta’ (PKCδ), have not been well characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that PKCδ, a STAT1 kinase, contains a functional ‘target of rapamycin signaling’ (TOS) motif that directs its interaction with mTORC1. Depletion of KPNA1 by RNAi prevented the nuclear import of PKCδ in cells exposed to the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin or amino acid restriction. Mutation of the TOS motif in PKCδ led to its loss of regulation by mTORC1 or karyopherin-α1, resulting in increased constitutive nuclear content. In cells expressing wild-type PKCδ, STAT1 activity and apoptosis were increased by rapamycin or interferon-β. Those expressing the PKCδ TOS mutant exhibited increased STAT1 activity and apoptosis; further enhancement by rapamycin or interferon-β, however, was lost. Therefore, the TOS motif in PKCδ is a novel structural mechanism by which mTORC1 prevents PKCδ and STAT1 nuclear import, and apoptosis.