Testing a mathematical model of the yeast cell cycle.
We derived novel, testable predictions from a mathematical model of the budding yeast cell cycle. A key qualitative prediction of bistability was confirmed in a strain simultaneously lacking cdc14 and G1 cyclins. The model correctly predicted quantitative dependence of cell size on gene dosage of the G1 cyclin CLN3, but it incorrectly predicted strong genetic interactions between G1 cyclins and the anaphase-promoting complex specificity factor Cdh1. To provide constraints on model generation, we determined accurate concentrations for the abundance of all nine cyclins as well as the inhibitor Sic1 and the catalytic subunit Cdc28. For many of these we determined abundance throughout the cell cycle by centrifugal elutriation, in the presence or absence of Cdh1. In addition, perturbations to the Clb-kinase oscillator were introduced, and the effects on cyclin and Sic1 levels were compared between model and experiment. Reasonable agreement was obtained in many of these experiments, but significant experimental discrepancies from the model predictions were also observed. Thus, the model is a strong but incomplete attempt at a realistic representation of cell cycle control. Constraints of the sort developed here will be important in development of a truly predictive model.