Publication — IRIC
Signaling Pathways Involved in the Regulation of mRNA Translation.
Translation is a key step in the regulation of gene expression and one of the most energy-consuming processes in the cell. In response to various stimuli, multiple signaling pathways converge on the translational machinery to regulate its function. To date, the roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in the regulation of translation are among the best understood. Both pathways engage the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) to regulate a variety of components of the translational machinery. While these pathways regulate protein synthesis in homeostasis, their dysregulation results in aberrant translation leading to human diseases, including diabetes, neurological disorders, and cancer. Here we review the roles of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways in the regulation of mRNA translation. We also highlight additional signaling mechanisms that have recently emerged as regulators of the translational apparatus.