Publication — IRIC
Machine Learning of Global Phosphoproteomic Profiles Enables Discrimination of Direct versus Indirect Kinase Substrates.
Mass spectrometry allows quantification of tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites from minute amounts of cellular material. Despite this wealth of information, our understanding of phosphorylation-based signaling is limited, in part because it is not possible to deconvolute substrate phosphorylation that is directly mediated by a particular kinase versus phosphorylation that is mediated by downstream kinases. Here, we describe a framework for assignment of direct in vivo kinase substrates using a combination of selective chemical inhibition, quantitative phosphoproteomics, and machine learning techniques. Our workflow allows classification of phosphorylation events following inhibition of an analog-sensitive kinase into kinase-independent effects of the inhibitor, direct effects on cognate substrates, and indirect effects mediated by downstream kinases or phosphatases. We applied this method to identify many direct targets of Cdc28 and Snf1 kinases in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Global phosphoproteome analysis of acute time-series demonstrated that dephosphorylation of direct kinase substrates occurs more rapidly compared with indirect substrates, both after inhibitor treatment and under a physiological nutrient shift in wt cells. Mutagenesis experiments revealed a high proportion of functionally relevant phosphorylation sites on Snf1 targets. For example, Snf1 itself was inhibited through autophosphorylation on Ser(391) and new phosphosites were discovered that modulate the activity of the Reg1 regulatory subunit of the Glc7 phosphatase and the Gal83 β-subunit of SNF1 complex. This methodology applies to any kinase for which a functional analog sensitive version can be constructed to facilitate the dissection of the global phosphorylation network.